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Ant Composition on The Stems of More Toxic and Less Toxic Anacardiaceae Known to Human

Ayu Savitri Nurinsiyah*, Eni Hidayati ** & Nur Edna Hasreena Ahlun ***
*Department of Biology, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang Km. 21, Jatinangor, West Java, Indonesia 45363
**Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta, Indonesia
***Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Locked Bag 2073, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Abstract. A study on ant composition on different genus from the Anacardiaceae family was conducted using the “bark spray method” in the CTFS Plot in Lambir Hills National Park from 8 to 10 July 2008. Gluta woodsiana and Mangifera foetida were chosen as the more toxic and less toxic Anacardiaceae known for human, respectively. Shorea laxa (Dipterocarpaceae) was selected as a control. Due to limited data gained, this study did not address the initial question of whether ants are affected by the toxic properties possesed by members of the Anacardiaceae the same way humans are affected. However, this research did manage to answer whether there is a difference in ant composition between the different three tree types. The data implies that there are more species abundance and species diversity in Shorea laxa compared to the two members of Anacardiacea family (Gluta woodsiana and Mangifera foetida).

Keyword: Anacardiaceae, ants, bark spray method, Shorea laxa, Gluta woodsiana, Mangifera foetida

FINDING NEMO: A Voyage of Discovery of the Association between Anemofish and Anemone Species

Alan Chiu*, Cindy Liu*, Ayu Nurinsiyah** and Anna Ruman*
*Harvard University/ Cambridge, MA, USA
**Padjadjaran University/ Jatinangor, West Java, Indonesia

Abstract. The symbiosis between host anemones and anemonefish species, although often simplified and romanticized by popular media, demands additional field observation in order to expand scientific understanding of these complex relationships. The association between anemones and anemonefish has been frequently noted in the literature, but no studies have yet been conducted to examine the species-specificity of this symbiosis. Our study examined 3 common anemonefish species and 4 common anemone species native to Malohom Bay, Pulau Gaya, Borneo, Malaysia. Randomized 5m wide transects perpendicular to the shoreline were surveyed, and 27 anemone and anemonefish species pairings were recorded. Pearson's Chi-squared tests for count data were performed on fish species vs. anemone species and fish species vs. relative anemone tentacle length (classed in 3 sizes: short, medium, and long). The p-values for both tests were significant at the 99% confidence level (p < 0.01 for both comparisons), indicating that there is highly significant species-specificity between anemone and anemonefish species and between anemone tentacle length and anemonefish species. Observation of this close association has important ramifications regarding the vulnerability of these symbiotic partnerships to reef degradation; further research could be conducted to determine whether these species-specific relationships result from adaptations of the physiology or the morphology of the fish and/or anemone.
Keyword: anemone, anemonefish, symbiosis, species specificity, reef ecology

Comparison of Dusky Munia (Lonchura fuscans) Time-budget Allocations with Respect to Proximity to Human Settlements

Ayu Savitri Nurinsiyah*, Shreekant J. Deodhar**
*Department of Biology, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang Km. 21, Jatinangor, West Java 45363, INDONESIA
**Center for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560 012, INDIA

Abstract. A behavioral study regarding time budget allocation of one of Borneo's endemic birds, Dusky Munia (Lonchura fuscans), was conducted on 2-4 August 2008 at the Maliau Basin Conservation Center, Malaysia. The study evaluates whether or not the birds behave differently when present near or away from human settlements. Two monitoring sites were chosen with respect to proximity to human settlement. Observations were done in the morning as well as in the evening so as to avoid a bias – if any – due to the time of the day. Activities recorded include moving (M), eating (E), resting (R), being actively vigilant (V) and other activities (ETC). Results indicate that Dusky munias allocate more time for R and less time for M when present near human settlements; the scenario being reversed when the birds are away from human disturbances. This can be attributed to the shy nature of the bird, as it may prefer hiding and lesser movement when present near human settlements. No significant differences were seen for V and E activities between the two locations.

Keyword: Lonchura fuscans, bird behaviour, human settlements, time budget allocation

Created By: Ayu_Nurinsiyah@Biodiversity_of_Borneo_2008